December 14th, 2014

Vienna – the musical capital of the world

The capital of Austria, one of Europe's oldest cities, founded around 1veka n. e. Located on the Danube, at the foot of the spurs of the Alps. Uncrowned capital of music, which is still alive the spirit of the great composers created here.

Vienna … When this word immediately arise persistent associations – Viennese Waltz, Viennese opera, Viennese coffee, Viennese sweets … And only then comes to mind that Vienna – the capital of Austria, the great city with an ancient history.


To trace its origin, need to look into the mists of time. In I. n. e. Celtic lands came under Roman rule. New hosts began to strengthen in the conquered lands. In a very convenient location, between one of the branches of the Danube river and Vin, located a Roman military camp, went down in history under the name of Vindobona. It was here that he died in 180 the Roman emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius. And then it was great migrations, when the barbarian Germanic tribes broke into the Roman Empire and destroyed the colony. In IV. Vindobona was destroyed. On those times preserved only legends that tell of the death of Attila the Hun leader of Vienna, or about staying here Charlemagne, who made this area their frontier post. Name of the settlement for centuries changed several times – Vindomina, Veniya, Viena, until finally he became final – Vienna.

Until the end of the XI century. Settlements expand, and only in 1137 the first historical chronicles called Vienna city, and in 1156 it became the capital of the Duchy – the Holy Roman Empire. While here belonged to the ducal power genus Babenberg. During the reign of Leopold VI the Glorious (1198-1230 gg.) Viennese merchants received "municipal law" trade and commerce flourished. Vienna grew under the protection of powerful walls. At the same time established extant planning of the streets of the medieval city.

But Babenberg dynasty rules Vienna relatively short. In the middle of the XIII century. she was replaced by Czech King Ottokar II, and in 1278 established himself in the power of Rudolf of Habsburg, whom the German princes elected emperor. Since then until 1918 the Habsburgs ruled Austria. From 1438 to 1806 the representatives of this kind invariably elected Holy Roman Emperor. And Vienna, the seat of the Dukes, became the capital of a large state, and then the empire. Every year the city prettier, turning, as in the famous tale of the "ugly duckling into a beautiful swan." Since the XVIII century. Vienna is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe and maintains that reputation so far. Who has not confessed his love to her: historians and travelers, critics and musicians, artists and poets.

In the "inner city" of the modern metropolis preserved the memory of the spirit of medieval Vienna. Fascinate hearing names of ancient city streets and squares. Graben ("moat"), Tiefer Graben-("deep ditch") – these names are stored on the memory layout of a Roman camp. Area Am Hof ("At the court") – are placed castle of the Dukes, Heuer Market Square ("Upper Market") and the Neuer Market ("New Market") exist with the first half of the XIII century. Their stones remember events past seven centuries. Other streets are reminiscent of industrial and commercial shops – Tuchlauben ("Village of the clothiers") Schuster shteyg ("street cobblers") Goldshmitgasse ("Alley of goldsmiths") …

Old streets during its existence overgrown with numerous legends. At the corner there is a tiny area Graben stem im Eisen ("Stick in iron"). In the niche of one of the new homes coming to the area, strengthened balance tree trunk with a variety of goals in a variety of nails. According to custom, preserved the beginning of XIX century., Each caught in Vienna journeyman plumber or a blacksmith had to hammer a nail into a tree, to be recognized as a master. One legend says: "The key to the lock, locked grate around the tree, did journeyman locksmith Joseph, won the award for that hand of his beloved daughter of the master." Another legend says that the devil is arranged so that the lock can not be opened, but the sharp-witted apprentice outsmarted touch.

In the legendary "House of the basilisk," built in the XIII century. According to legend, when digging a well discovered a monstrous beast – basilisk.

Old Vienna is full of surprises. Among the street jostling and trendy shops suddenly appear old houses, small shops, openwork iron signboard hanging at right angles to the house here and there. Wind blowing from the mountains, accelerates bustle of the modern city, filling the air with the smell of coffee and world famous Viennese pastries. Calm and measured the lives of many generations of good burghers, craftsmen and merchants as if still ongoing. In cafes offer "Viennese coffee." Bring a drink on a silver tray with a mandatory extension – a glass of cold water and chocolate. Experts in small sips sip strong drink, washing it down with spring water. Many urban cafe proud of their traditions: in "Frauenhubere" visited