May 21st, 2014

Lviv – the Capital Territory Galitsky

Those who have not seen Lviv, have no right to talk about what they know Ukraine. The city, founded in the mid HS. Centuries collected all the best that appeared in the Ukrainian lands. He is considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe and at the same time is not like any one of the European cities. Lviv station like a palace on the central street is the Statue of Liberty (as opposed to the American-sitting), and on the walls you can read quotes from Virgil and Hippocrates. This city, where about 900tys. man, is famous not so much architecture (although it is excellent), but a special atmosphere.

The first recorded mention of Lviv found in 1256 in Galicia-Volyn chronicle. Famous Prince Daniel Romanovich (Galitsky) named it after his son Leo. Name of the city has had a great influence on his subsequent fate: Lviv residents defended to the last, rebuffing numerous invaders. Walls Lviv temples preserved traces attacks. Some of the nuclei imbedded there and provided with inscriptions, which are reminiscent of a variety of sediments carried over town. The scariest of them occurred in 1672, when Kapudanpasha with Peter Doroshenko led to the walls of Lviv 230000th army. Regular Polish troops sent to help the townspeople fled. They were followed by the richest citizens. However, the city in which only a little more than a thousand defenders survived. Kapudanpasha agreed to a ransom of 80 thousand thalers, the city could pay only five. Then Lvov identified ten hostages – a guarantee that the debt will be repaid in full. And after seven years kept their word.

O glorious military past resemble two buildings – the Powder Tower and the City Arsenal. Powder Tower, built 450 years ago, was part of the defense industry is not preserved city. The thickness of its walls three meters. Now here is the house of the architect. Arsenal, built in the XVI century. the means of Lviv, located between the defensive walls in the south-eastern part of the old town. Once lived here with his family city executioner. Here was located the city jail. Since 1582 at the City Arsenal existed workshop where cast cannon. Now this building belongs to the Lviv Historical Museum. In 1981 there was founded the only Ukrainian Museum of Weapons.

Willing to take the city, through which most trade routes in the history of Lviv were many. He was a member of the Commonwealth, then – the Austrian Empire, was the center of the Western Ukrainian Republic, survived the German occupation. However, all of these events – only outline the internal history of the city, which today reads in his appearance.

The streets and squares of the ancient city appeared not chaotic – its urban planning meet the standards laid down in the so-called Helmsmen books, known since the X century. Princely Lviv was divided into two parts – a fortified Detinets (Castle) and Posad protected shaft and the wall. Castle Mountain – is a holy place for all citizens. It is here that Daniel Galitsky decided on the basis of Lviv and built the first fortress. Climbing to its summit, you begin to understand why it is here once kept the greatest princely shrine – two gold crowns, gold crosses and gilded throne, and why the King Casimir, capturing Lviv, built on Castle Hill fortress (it was not possible to capture three centuries) . However, over time the High Castle suffered a sad fate. He suffered from the earthquake, and then, after many battles, began to fall apart. In the ruins of a once great fortress settled tramps and thieves, here began to drive patients with plague.

Austrians dismantled remains of walls for new buildings and destroyed along with the picturesque cliffs. Eventually the mountain gradually began to deteriorate, and it was decided to establish a park on it. Now High Castle covered with trees. Only the name is reminiscent of what was once here was a fortress that gave birth to the city.

In Lviv architecture harmoniously combines ancient and modern, mixed styles from all eras – Gothic and Baroque, Classicism and Romanesque, Rococo and Empire, eclecticism, modernism and constructivism. Sights of the city (and there are more than two thousand) do not look museum exhibits. Some of them continue to perform their functions, others acquired over time a new assignment and new names. There are more than 280 churches (much more than in any other Ukrainian city), most of them – acting. Incidentally, in the beginning of the XX century. Lviv was the only place in the world, where the residence of three Catholic archbishops: Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic and Armenian Catholic. Each of the churches in Lviv something unique.

St. Nicholas Church – the oldest. The first written mention of it dates back to 1292. She served as a family burial place of Lviv princes.