June 26th, 2014

London – Guardian secular traditions

Capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with a population of over 7 million people, the largest political and cultural center of the country, founded in '43. Such a number of museums and pubs, factories and docks, there is probably more than in any other city in the world. Every year millions of tourists here seek, as long history of organically combined here with the latest technological advancements.

In London, many epithets. "Capital of the World", "wonder city", "a unique jewel in the treasury of world civilization", "keeper of ancient traditions" … But perhaps the best Samuel Johnson said in 1777: "If you're tired of London, you are tired of living, because there is everything you would expect from life." London – is primarily a special lifestyle – with its misty weather, which really does not often happen, double-decker buses, large parks and lawns neprimyatymi – are all associated with the centuries-old tradition, at every step – history.

Modern London occupies a vast territory (1.8 thousand sq. km.) And almost merges with the suburbs. It differs from most of the old cities in mainland Europe, the development and growth which restrained ring of ancient fortifications and new streets and neighborhoods were built around one of the historic center. London is – "the city-constellation." Set of towns and villages that have arisen on the Thames in ancient times, gradually expanding, lasted a single conglomerate, but preserved the features of his personality.

London – primarily a city with a rich history. It is believed that it was founded by the Celts, but reliable information about it has been preserved. Therefore, the beginning of its history was in '43 n. e., when the Roman legions of Emperor Claudius invaded the British Isles. Constructing the crossing of the River Thames, the Romans on the northern bank of the river founded a settlement, called Londinium. As the Roman city, he was surrounded by an earthen wall, which in the IV. replaced the stone ramparts. Londinium developed rapidly, and in '61 the Roman historian Tacitus mentions it as "a city full of merchants known center of trade." But after the fall of the Roman Empire Londinium for a while losing ground and is in decline.

Revitalization of the city begins in the beginning of VII century., When its population increases again. In 884 Alfred the Great made it the capital of his state; 976 London becomes a political and economic center of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom, and in the XI – XII centuries early. – The capital of England and the royal residence. In 1066, William the Conqueror was crowned in the newly built Westminster Abbey. During his reign, London thrives and becomes the largest city of the kingdom. Almost 130 years later, in 1191, Richard I, he was granted the right to self-government. In XII-XV centuries. London more established as a commercial and economic center, leading trade with the Hanseatic towns and occupying a strategic position in world trade. With the formation in 1560 the capital of England Royal Exchange gradually occupies the position of the financial center of Europe.

London has grown rapidly under Elizabeth I. During its forty-year reign of capital's population has doubled and in 1600 reached 200 thousand to build houses, theaters, churches, architect Aynigo Jones creates entire neighborhoods. In 1666 the Great Fire four days almost completely destroyed the capital, but to the XVIII century. London became the largest city in Europe.

The growth of the city in the XIX century. strongly influenced by the industrial revolution and the development of trade and transport. First Railway, built in 1836, joined the London Bridge and Greenwich. In 1863 opened the first underground railway. At first, she acted on the steam-powered, and since 1906 on the lines of the London Underground first went electric. Century and a half the length of subway lines reached four thousand miles. Developed and ground transportation. In 1904, the streets of the first bus left, so far storey-famous double-decker red buses (double-decker) appeared only in 1956.

By the beginning of XX century. England losing its position as a world power. Although London as a global city retains much of its meaning, yet it yields the palm to New York. At the beginning of XX century. rebuilt new West End. By 1939, London's population peaked. During the Second World War, the capital of Great Britain suffered greatly as a result of German bombing, was destroyed many architectural structures of the Victorian era. The postwar period has changed city. In the capital, there are new areas. – Soho, Notting Hill, Southall, Finsbury, where settled immigrants from the former British Empire.

London continues to evolve and as a leading