August 31st, 2014

Lisbon – sea gate of Europe

Portugal's capital city – one of the most beautiful resort towns of the world, economic, political, scientific and cultural center. Located on seven picturesque hills of the northern shore of the Atlantic Ocean Lisbon bay formed by the estuary of the River Tagus (Tajo).

City stretches along the bay about 30 km. There's Academy of Sciences, University, other universities, as well as theaters, concert halls. Number of unique museums and monuments in Lisbon is one of the first places in the world. Population together with its suburbs is 2.3 million people, about 90% of them Catholics. Public transport modes, metro, buses, trams, taxis and several lifts. On the other capital cities and countries linked by rail, road, air (international airport "Portela") and sea links.

Numerous historical and architectural monuments, luxurious villas, eucalyptus and tangerine groves, the best beaches, superb hotels, gourmet restaurants, cozy cafes, nightclubs and discos, golf courses, world-class one of the largest casino in Europe, the famous highway "Formula 1 "corrida – all this attracts millions of tourists to Lisbon from around the world.

This city has witnessed several eras and different civilizations. Legend has it that it was founded Greek hero Ulysses, giving name – Ulissipona. Later, when the Romans came to the territory of modern Portugal, the settlement became known in Latin – Felikitas Julia, and then – Lizh-Boas that in Portuguese means "Lisbon" ("Favorite Bay"). After the Greeks and Romans on the Iberian Peninsula flooded the barbarian tribes of the Visigoths, and then, in the years 713-718. n. e., the Arabs invaded here, they are also the Moors. Arab buildings still exist throughout the country, and somewhat dark complexion locals also required Moors. In 1147 the town was conquered by the Arabs Alfonso Henriques, who became the first king of Portugal, and with the 1255 Lisbon is the capital of the state.

In the XV century. Portuguese navigators discovered the Azores and Madeira. In 1498 of the "Beloved Bay" was launched Vasco da Gama. Rounding the southern tip of Africa, he paved the sea route to India. In 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral, heading down this path, off course, quite unexpectedly discovered Brazil.

In Article XV-XVI. Lisbon is becoming one of the richest merchants and shopping centers in Europe, but the unprecedented power of the earthquake in 1755 destroys almost everything. Soon, however, thanks to the efforts of Prime Minister Marquis de Pombal in the same place around the squares Rossio and Praa do Comrcio grows a new metropolis and its radiating streets reborn life. At this time, was built and a new royal palace, which still works most of the ministries of Portugal.

In the first half of the XX century. Lisbon had another building boom. To the World's Fair in 1940 was completely renovated waterfront. In 1960, construction of the bridge over the 25 April – the longest suspension in the continent, which linked the northern and southern parts of the metropolis. It overshadows the giant statue of Jesus Christ.

In 1994, Lisbon was recognized as a city of European culture, and four years later hosted the exhibition "Expo 98." In the same year in the capital was opened huge – 17.2 km in length – the bridge over the Tagus River (the river itself spreads the width of more than ten kilometers). This gigantic structure is named Vasco da Gama is the first and largest in Europe and second in the world (after Japan).

In Lisbon, there were traces of the culture of many peoples who inhabited this area. Particularly noteworthy architectural monuments built in the Manueline style – this architecture is unique in that only existed in Portugal.

Districts of the capital staggered down toward the river, why there are so many stairs and lifts, which give the city a specific and unique. A few meters from the tense lines begin the steep steps leading to the quiet utolki where parks and reservoirs allow to forget about the noisy crowded dusty urban mazes. One of the features of Lisbon are comfortable scenic terrace – "Mirador", with which delighted tourists visiting the area.

But for a long walk on foot to the capital yet tedious – the sun was hot and the habit hard to climb up. It is very rugged terrain is where there are quarters and bridge, paved with limestone. Locals overweening – over the years their habitat here they seem to have acquired the proper physical training, and height differences do not confuse them.

By public transport visitors can travel around the city and explore it with the height of the second floor of the bus. It also suitable for taxi and tram. If the car goes through the old town, you can hand