January 16th, 2014

Cues, or

The city became the cradle of the East Slavic state. "Mother of Russian cities" – talked about it the ancient chronicles. Now Kiev – the capital of Ukraine, one of the largest cities in Europe, it is the administrative, cultural, scientific, economic and educational center of the state.

In 1982, Kiev celebrated its 1500th anniversary. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, historians believe that somewhere in the middle of V century. McDermott lived – a man, according to legend, founded the city. "Things were three brothers: the name of a single cue, and another Cheeks and third Horeb and their sister Lybed. Sidyashe Kyi on the hill where now uzvoz Borychsv and Cheeks sydyashe on the mountain that is now called Schekavitsa and Mount Horeb in the third, nicknamed him Horevitsa. And hail and sotvorisha narekosha his name Kiev. Were men wise and smyshleny, christen Polyana, from them are Polyana Kiev to this day. " So reported the chronicler Nestor in "The Tale of Bygone Years" that "has gone from Russian land, who in Kiev knyazhiti beginning of the first."

Kiev history is inextricably linked with the history of Kievan Rus. The ancient city grew and developed together with the state. In 882 at Askold and Dir city has conquered konung Varangian Oleg. He gathered the land clearings drevlyan, northerners and Ulichi Tivertsy in a single state – Kievan Rus. That said Oleg about Kiev: "Behold Buti mother gradom russkim!". At the beginning of X c. Kiev obeyed almost all East land. The capital will soon become one of the most important craft and trade centers in Europe, through it an important trade route "from the Varangians to the Greeks." In XI. Western chronicles described Kiev as "the largest city in which more than 400 churches, 8 markets, countless residents."

In autumn 1240 the hordes of Batu Khan crossed the Dnieper and besieged Kiev. Chronicles testify numerous troops, attacked the city: "… could not hear the creaking set their carts, the roar of camels, the neighing of horses. " Robbed and plundered by hordes of Batu, he declined. In 1362, Kiev seized Lithuania, turning it into the capital of the province of Kiev. In 1569 the Union of Lublin Lithuania and Poland united into one state – Rzeczpospolita. Polish feudal lords established over most of Ukraine, including Kiev and over, their dominion. In the spring of 1648 the rebels against national and religious oppression Ukrainians drove the invaders out of the city, and December 23, 1648 through the Golden Gate in Kiev entered Bohdan Khmelnytsky, who became the first independent Ukrainian hetman. But Zborowski contract back in 1649 under the protection of the Polish Kiev.

In 1654 Pereyaslavskaya Rada decided to join Ukraine in the Russian Empire. Opens in Kyiv Brotherhood school and the Kiev-Mohyla Collegium. Joining the Right-Bank Ukraine to Russia in the late XVIII century. contributed to the growth of Kiev. In 1782-1796 years. it is the center of Kiev governorship, from 1797 becomes a provincial city, and then the capital Kiev governor-generalship. Kiev is growing in the middle of the XIX century. in it there are already 65,000 people.

However big fire in 1811 destroyed at the hem almost 2/3 of all urban homes. New development plan of Kiev liquidated existed until a radial system of streets, dividing the city into regular squares. Special provision obliged to build beautiful stone buildings and instead of winding and narrow streets paved wide and straight. At the end of the XIX century. here there are water supply, sewerage, electricity and tram.

Since the beginning of the XX century. begins the story industrial building in Kiev: modernized old, constructed new factories. In June 1934 the city became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. In Kiev, erecting office buildings, universities, research institutes. Huge damage to the city caused the Great Patriotic War. On the first day of the war the capital of Ukraine was bombed. For all military killed thousands of years people of Kiev, was destroyed 40% of the living space, 800 industrial enterprises. For courage and fortitude Kiev received the title of "Hero City" and was awarded two Orders of Lenin and medal "Gold Star".

After the war, Kiev rebuilt regains its industry. It expands geographically, increasing its population. Today Kiev – the capital of independent Ukraine, a modern metropolis with deep historical roots, where antiquity and modernity coexists. It is home to 2.7 million people.

"St. Petersburg – a young city, Moscow – ancient and Kiev – the eternal city, Rome is the North" – Honore de Balzac said. And indeed, from the Baptism of Kiev in 988, Kiev – not only secular capital of the principality, but also the center of Christianity in Russia. On the lower terrace of Vladimir's Hill is a monument to Grand Duke Vladimir Svyatoslavich opened in 1853. And to this day bronze shestnadtsatimetrovy Vladimir overshadows his cross