February 10th, 2014

Berlin – the largest history book in stone

The city is spread on an area of 884 square meters. km, of which 40% is occupied by parks and ponds. Its population is 3.5 million people, most of whom – Catholics and Protestants. Thanks channels connecting with Spree Oder and the Elbe, Berlin is considered a port city. When in 1945 the Soviet troops surrounded the capital of the Reich, the submarine was preparing to take on Hitler and secretly on the rivers pass from Berlin to the Atlantic Ocean. The German capital with its architectural masterpieces and 167 museums called great history textbook in stone. In addition, the city is a cultural, educational and business center. It employs more than 150 theaters and scenic sites, three opera houses, 134 cinemas, eight symphony orchestras, two zoos, two racecourse, Old and New Art Galleries, stadiums, entertainment venues. Every day in the capital passes over a thousand cultural events. In one study universities 7berlinskih 137 thousand students from many countries, 17 of 5 0krupneyshih companies in the world and 75 of the 100 largest German firms have their offices here.

According to one version, the name of the metropolis stands for "Rookery Bear" – ("Ber-ligen"). By the middle of the XII century. relates mention of Brandenburg Margrave Albrecht Baer (Baer – Bear"), founder of the city as possible, and by 1244 – the first documentary mention of Berlin. Its symbol is a bear in 1338.
Began the history of the capital from the time when one bank of the river Spree formed a settlement Kelln (Colin or Cologne), and on the other – Berlinag or Berligen. In 1307 these two towns were united under the name Berlin. Thanks to its excellent geographical location and waterways city became the seat of a lively trade between East and West, and quickly achieved economic success.

In the XV century. imperial dynasty of Hohenzollern has done a lot for the development of Berlin, and in 1486 it became the capital of Brandenburg. When Friedrich Wilhelm Brandenburg, the Great Elector, the city continued to flourish and equip with modern conveniences. For example, in 1647 were planted in 1000 and 1000 lindens nut trees. Subsequently, this beautiful avenue was called Unter den Linden ("under the linden trees"). In 1709 during the heyday of the Kingdom of Prussia proclaimed capital of Berlin, and at the beginning of the XIX century. He became the third largest (after London and Paris) European metropolis, the center of education, science and culture.

Continued technological revolution: in the urban economy in 1816 on the Spree launched the first steamboat, in ten years the main street of the Prussian capital Unter den Linden already covered flashlights, in 1839, opened the first rail connection to Potsdam.

After the unification of the Prussian lands in 1871 Berlin became the capital of the German Empire. In 1881, the city commissioned the world's first tram line in 1902 was opened the first stage of the Warsaw metro bridge to the zoo, and in 1905 started up city buses. In 1923, in the German capital began broadcasting, and in 1931 held the world's first television broadcast. In 1936 Berlin hosted the Olympic Games XI. By the beginning of World War II, in 1939, the city had 4.3 million residents, and by May 1945 – just a third of 2.8 million houses and many architectural masterpieces were destroyed.
Under the terms of the Potsdam Conference in 1945, the USSR, the U.S., Britain and France divided the whole of Germany and Berlin into occupation zones. In 1946, the Western Allies issued an interim constitution, organized the first democratic elections, and West Berlin became a city-state. As a result, the "cold" war on June 24, 1948 to May 12, 1949 the Soviet Union blockade lasted Western occupation zones of Berlin. Britain and America to provide airlift city population vital goods, and due to this "capitalist" Berlin half survived. Military transport aircraft the U.S. Air Force with the support of the British and French allies, having made 279 114 flights delivered almost 2.5 million tons of cargo.

In 1949 was formed the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. East Berlin communists declared capital of the GDR. June 17, 1953 in the capital and many cities of the GDR broke anticommunist uprising that Soviet troops brutally suppressed.

In the night from 12 to 13 August 1961 began to divide Berlin concrete "anti-fascist protective wall" height of 4.1 m It was intended to stem the flight of people from the communist "paradise" in Germany – the "land of decaying capitalism." The total length of a four-meter concrete monster with electronic equaled 161 km, including 45 km separated the eastern and western zones of Berlin.

Like a huge knife, construction sliced through the city, maiming tens of thousands of destinies: people have been separated from their families, lost their jobs or studies. Berlin for many years has become a symbol